DISTORSI POSTURAL TULANG BELAKANG ATLET DITINJAU DARI CABANG OLAHRAGA

MUHAMMAD SATRIA PURNAMA

Abstrak


Postur tubuh sangat penting karena berkaitan erat dengan kesehatan dan ergonomi. Namun, perubahan postur sering terjadi pada anak-anak dan remaja. Respon dan adaptasi fisiologis karena aktivitas olahraga akan terjadi terutama pada sistem muskuloskeletal dan kemungkinan akan mempengaruhi postur tubuh. Khususnya, perubahan pada struktur tulang belakang yang merupakan salah satu bagian utama dari prinsip postur tubuh. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah untuk mengetahui distorsi postural tulang belakang atlet dari berbagai cabang olahraga. Ulasan literatur dari berbagai sumber untuk mendukung tulisan ini. Distorsi postural tulang belakang atlet ditinjau dari cabang olahraga didasari oleh persyaratan spesifik, pembebanan saat latihan, dan pengulangan yang berkepanjangan. Adanya suatu otot atau kelompok otot yang memendek dapat menyebabkan kemungkinan terjadinya kifosis dan lordosis. Adanya ketidakseimbangan unilateral otot karena dominasi satu sisi tubuh dapat menyebabkan kemungkinan terjadinya skoliosis. Cabang-cabang olahraga tertentu memiliki kecenderungan distorsi postural tulang belakang tertentu. Kondisi tersebut dapat diperparah oleh faktor-faktor tertentu seperti amenorea, kelainan bawaan, kelemahan sendi, cidera olahraga, frekuensi dan lama waktu latihan dan lain-lain. Dengan kelainan yang paling sering ditemui pada atlet adalah kifosis, lordosis dan skoliosis.

 

Kata kunci : Atlet, Cabang olahraga, Distorsi postural, Kifosis, Lordosis, Skoliosis, Tulang belakang atlet.


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